Government shutdowns are a costly business. The 2013 shutdown cost $24 billion in lost economic output while the 1996 shutdown resulted in $2.1 billion in government costs. We are yet to learn the impact, if any, of the three-day 2018 shutdown.
But, what we do know is that shutdowns are not universal. For many critical government employees, the lights never go out. Here’s just a shortlist:
Veterans Affairs (VA) remained operational.