“The technologies that define the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) include artificial intelligence, machine learning, robotics, data science, Cloud computing, and the Internet of Things. In turn, these technologies have powered other new technologies like genetic engineering, which has transformed agriculture and medicine, and blockchain, which is transforming commerce”.

Compounding the pace of technological change are other pressures, notably the COVID-19 pandemic, that have changed how people interact, work, and do business. These pressures have also accelerated the pace of 4IR.